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14th Century Medieval Mens Clothing

There is great variation in costume throughout the fourteenth century, particularly with headware, and it is important with reconstruction of costume to ensure that the various pieces would have been worn together, both those that would have been worn at the same time and matching quality.

Edward II - Edward III - Richard II

Edward II 1307-1327

Gold or silver tissue (material threaded with gold and silver) was worn throughout the 14th Century. Kersey a soft woolen ribbed material was worn by the wealthy. Heavier cloths were used more often for outer garments. "parti-color" or "mi-parti", with garments made of two or more colours started to be worn during the reign on Edward II.

Head: A linen coif or undercap covering the hair and ears and tied under the chin. Thea hood was sometimes worn as a hat and later called a chaperon (Chaperon - a hat made of material rolled up around the head, extra material was placed up top and allowed to drape to one side). Men tended to wear their hair long, almost to the shoulders.

The hair was bushy, cut round and curled, the face clean shaven, although Edward II had a beard arranged in three curls. Old men wore their beards forked.

Chaplet

A type of head ornament in the form of a garland, wreath, or ornamented band, to be worn around the head. Chaplets were made of metal with repoussé decoration or embellished with gemstones and pearls

Body: A shirt was worn as an undergarment made of linen or silk for the wealthy. Linen was made from the flax plant and was relatively easy to bleach and clean of sweat and body oils providing a layer protecting the skin from what may often have been a coarse wool, as well as helping to stop the sweat and body oils from entering into the layer above.

Tunic

The basic T shaped loose tunic and super tunic worn in the 13th century continued to be worn.  These loose garments were slit up the front, had sleeves, and were worn with a girdle. In addition, they could be shortened to the hip.

Super Tunic or Garnache

In 1320 a super tunic called the garnache was worn which was knee length and the material was cut wide at the shoulders to allow the material to “fall down on each side, predicting cape-like sleeves,”. The sides of this tunic could be clasped at the waist, sewn from the waist to the hem, or left open and was traditionally beltless. The last style was simply sleeveless and worn with a belt.

Bliaud

A long belted overtunic worn from the eleventh to the early fourteenth century. Noblemen wore ankle or calf length Bliaud, and those of lower class were knee length. It was split at the sides for riding. The word derives from the German blialt, meaning cloth.

Large circular cloaks with or without a hood were made of heavy cloth.

Legs:

Braes

Braes made of linen were worn covering the loins, and over the C14 continued to shorten.

Hose

Seperate hose or chausses for each leg, made out of generally lined wool were used to cover the legs, and were generally brightly coloured, and often had leather soles, so that they did not have to be worn with shoes. Hose were generally tied to the braes belt. Silk tights were common in Italy and Spain long before they became so in England during the reign of Elizabeth. In the 14th century, Italy had progressed to the point of having tights not only of silk but often embroidered in gold.

Garters

Garters were worn just below the knee and were sometimes decorated. Garters can be seen in the Luttrell Psalter dating from 1325-1335.

Feet:

Shoes had their point in line with the big toe. Hose were sometimes made with leather soles attached to the footpiece and worn without shoes.

Accoutrements:

Purses

purse hung from the girdle with draw strings at the top

Daggers

Daggers were sometimes carried but swords were rarely seen with civilan dress.

Farm workers wore gloves.

Aprons were worn by various trades and craftsmen.

 

Edward III 1327-1377

In the 1330's edges of garments were cut away to form dagging and became a very popular fashion. By 1350 Satin was in use, silk by 1360 and by 1371 flannel of a fine linen and a many coloured worsted material. Grey Musterdevilliers came from Normandy and a new green cloth called siskin from the Flemish. Fabrics were solid, striped, woven and from the mid fourteenth century elaborately embroidered. "parti-color" or "mi-parti", with garments made of two or more colours were worn. Colours were usually bright and highly contrasting. During the pestilence in 1360, Edward III wore black and was said to have been used as a sign of humility, and in 1364 wore "sanguine ingrain" (purple). Beards were worn for a brief period between 1325 and 1350. The beard of Edward III was very long.

Head: Headwear was often worn, either a hat or a crown, where headwear is not shown, then a hood is generally present, worn either with cloaks or as seperate garments. Hats were worn indoors until the 17th century. From about 1350 painted hoods were worn.

Chaplet, Circlets and Crowns

A type of head ornament in the form of a garland, wreath, or ornamented band, to be worn around the head. Chaplets were made of metal with repoussé decoration or embellished with gemstones and pearls

Circlet, William of Hatfield, York Cathedral, 1337 Circlet, Thomas Beauchamp and wife Katherine mortimer weeper 27, Warwick. 1369 Circlet, weeper of Thomas de Vere, Bures, 1371
William of Hatfield Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 27 male civilian Bures St Stephen Thomas de Vere 1371 weeper

Coifs

Coif and hood, John Cokayne, Ashbourne, 1372

Ashbourne - St Oswald John Cokayne 1372

Hoods

Hood, Thomas de Montsorel, Whitelackington, 1350 Coif and hood, John de Stonore, Dorchester Abbey, 1354 Hood, Thomas Beauchamp and wife Katherine mortimer weeper 5, Warwick. 1369
Whitelackington - St Mary Thomas de Montsorel 1350 Dorchester Abbey St Peter and St Paul John de Stonore 1354 coif hood Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 5 male civilian

Beaver Hat

Early in the reign a rounded hat with an oval brim, often made made of beaver fur and thus came to be called the beaver hat, a very high crown was popular. In royal accounts it appeared for the first time in 1350, when in a royal wedding the beaver hat of the king was supported with a brim of red velvet, embroidered with gold and pearls, and worn his crown over it. It soon became part of certain garments for the King's officers.

Beaver Hat, Thomas Beauchamp and wife Katherine mortimer weeper 3, Warwick. 1369 Beaver Hat, Thomas Beauchamp and wife Katherine mortimer weeper 7, Warwick. 1369 Beaver Hat, Thomas Beauchamp and wife Katherine mortimer weeper 15, Warwick. 1369 Beaver Hat worn over hood, Thomas Beauchamp and wife Katherine mortimer weeper 19, Warwick. 1369 Beaver Hat, weeper of Thomas de Vere, Bures, 1371
Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 3 male civilian Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 7 male civilian Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 15 male civilian Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 19 male civilian weeper of Thomas de Vere, Bures, 1371
Beaver Hat, weeper of Thomas de Vere, Bures, 1371        
Bures civilain effigy        

Chaperon

The Chaperon was a head covering popular among older men from about 1350 and was achieved by using the hood with its liripipe and cape. The head was thrust into the pocket of the hood usually filled up by the face. The cape was gathered into a huge rosette, its foliated edges lending themselves admirably to the purpose, and held to one side of this improvised hat by knotting around it the liripipe, whose long end was thrown about the shoulders like a scarf. Over the later fourteenth century it developed from the hood worn as a hat to the Chaperon in the 15th century. By 1377 the lirapipe of a chaperon was often twisted around the head.

Body: A shirt was worn as an undergarment made of linen or silk for the wealthy. Linen was made from the flax plant and was relatively easy to bleach and clean of sweat and body oils providing a layer protecting the skin from what may often have been a coarse wool, as well as helping to stop the sweat and body oils from entering into the layer above.

From around 1340 the tunic was being replaced by the doublet, gipon or gypon, also called a pourpoint,  jaqueta or jubón (the name and when it was used varies according to the author). The doublet probably evolved from a layer worn beneath armor (The pourpoint was mentioned as part of the armour in 1297, and in 1313 as used in tournaments) and was knee length and close-fitting, without any folds or gathers as the tunic was. The sleeves were long and tight and the neck was low. The bodice was padded and the garment was either buttoned, often with may buttons for decoration or laced down the front, but for the lower classes it was only buttoned to the waist. Parti coloured clothing was very fashionable for men. The doublet was traditionally worn over a shirt and if worn with an outer garment, a belt was not worn. Before 1360 the doublet reached the knee but after this it became shorter and shorter until it barely covered the hips. The front was padded and had close fitting sleeves.

From 1350, the cotehardie began to replace the surcotte, the overgarment of the earlier century. A French chronicle records: "Around that year (1350), men, in particular noblemen and their squires, took to wearing tunics so short and tight that they revealed what modesty bids us hide. This was a most astonishing thing for the people". The cote-hardie was worn over the doublet and reached to the knee but became shorter after about 1360. It was fastened at the front by buttons down to the height of the girdle. The less well off wore looser cotehardies that had no fastening at the front, instead they were one piece and were put on over the head. The sleeves were cut away to the elbow and hung long at the back, and later replaced by the tippet There are two different kinds of coudières (tippets) seen in art. This probably represents the evolution of the coudières. They started as loose sleeves on an overgarment designed to show the sleeves of the undergarment. Gradually, the length of the upper sleeves shortened while the cuff around the elbow lengthened till it became a long strip. In many of the manuscripts, this is clearly visible. Other types of coudière seem more like separate strips or ribbons attached to the upper sleeves howver there is no listing for a "tippet" as a separate item of clothing. The cuffs often extended over the wrist to the knuckles. The girdle was worn low on the hips and nobles wore flat belts of metal and jewels. One of the variations was the courtepy, decorated in front with jewels, and supported with a high collar.

Cotehardie worn with hood, Walter de Haylon at Much Marcle, 1350 Cotehardie worn with cloak, Beauchamp Weeper 3, Warwick, 1369 Cotehardie worn with cloak, Beauchamp Weeper, Warwick, 1369 Cotehardie worn with cloak, Beauchamp Weeper, Warwick, 1369
Cotehardie Cotehardie Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 27 male civilian 91.JPG Cotehardie

Gown

Dignified people often continued to wear the long gown. A gown, tunic or kirtle was usually worn over the shirt or doublet. As with other outer garments, it was generally made of wool. Over this, a man might also wear an over-kirtle, cloak, or a hood. Servants and working men wore their kirtles at various lengths, including as low as the knee or calf. However the trend during the century was for hem-lengths to shorten for all classes

Gown worn with hooded cloak, Beauchamp Weeper, Warwick, 1369 Belted gown with baldric, Beauchamp Weeper, Warwick, 1369 Gown and baldric, weeper of Thomas de Vere 1371 Belted gown with cloak, weeper of Thomas de Vere 1371
Gown with cloak gown with baldrick gown gown with cloak

The houce or housse, developed from the thirteenth century garnache, and was trimmed with fur and decorated with two pieces of cloth of different colour and was worn for ceremonial occasions over the cotehardie. The houce was mentioned together with two surcottes and a hood as a robe of King John the Good in 1352. King Charles VI of France wears a houce in a book miniature from 1371. The Prince of Wales is described as having a housse in his inventory 1.

The houppelande is usually associated with late fourteenth century, but Froissart describes a knight concealing his armour beneath a houpeland and mantle to capture Evereux castle in 1357. Stella Mary Newton suggests that the goun and houpeland were identical or similar garments in this period 2. The houpeland was worn by men and women with long wide hanging sleeves. It had a high neck reaching to the ears and a rich turned over border. The skirt was slit at the front or sides and had a higher waist. Towards the end of the reign the 'bagpipe' sleeve appeared which hung full as in the previous sleeve but had a small cuff at the wrist. The skirts, sleeves and neck borders were often dagged or folded back and lined with contrasting material. The gypon beneath was only visible in its tight sleeves. The girdle which may have been embroidered and jewelled holds together the long skirt of the houppelande.

cloaks

Among the various kinds of cloaks and mantles, the gardecorps of the thirteenth century was used especially in winter. This long cloak sometimes reached the ankle, had wide sleeves and high collar, was cut on one side. Sometimes a hood was added. This dress was replaced by the middle of the 14th century with the characteristical round mantles, which were cut in one piece. A corset rond usually was closed with four buttons on the left or right shoulder, and could be dagged elaborately at the bottom. One of the variations was named cyclas: in this case the neckline was trimmed with fur or silk of a different colour.

Semicircular cloaks were worn with rich linings and fastened with one or two buttons on one shoulder

Hooded cloak, Beauchamp Weeper, Warwick, 1369 Hat and cloak, Beauchamp Weeper, Warwick, 1369
Cotehardie Cotehardie

Legs: Braes made of linen were worn covering the loins, and over the C14 continued to shorten.

On the legs were worn seperate hose which were generally brightly colored wool and mostly lined, inventories of the wealthy show hose made of silk and velvet. From 1350 with shorter surcotes, cotehardies and doublets being worn, the hose rose higher on the leg and were fastened to the inside of the doublet or gypon by short ties instead of the braes or a belt. From the mid C14 parti coloured and vaiegated hose were seen.

Garters were worn with the hose, and in 1348, Edward III created the Order of the Garter, where garter, which was worn below the left knee, and was made of blue cloth or of silk embroidered with gold, its buckles and chape of silver gilt.

Order of the Garter, Reginald de Cobham, Lingfield, 1361 Order of the Garter, William Fitzwarin La Frere, Wantage, 1361 Order of the Garter, Edward Despencer wearing a garter in the The Church Militant and Triumphant fresco by Andrea da Firenze Fresco, Cappella Spagnuolo Santa Maria Novella Florence, 1365-68
Lingfield St Peter and Paul 20 Reginald de Cobham 1361 garter Wantage - St Peter and St Paul William Fitzwarin La Frere 1361 garter Andrea da Firenze Fresco with Edward Despencer wearing garter in the The Church Militant and Triumphant 1365-68 Cappella Spagnuolo Santa Maria Novella Florence

Feet:

Most pictures of feet show shoes or low boots of some kind. High thigh boots can be seen in hunting scenes. Occasionally, when depicted indoors, hose are shown without any obvious shoe, thus leading costumers to the conclusion the hose could be self-soled. A self-soled hose would have had leather soles instead of fabric. Houseaulx, or leather leggings, could be worn over the chausses for riding. Footwear of the time is of the pointed-toe variety, toe lengths increased as the century progressed.

Decorated shoes of William of Hatfield, York Cathedral, 1337 Shoes, Walter de Helyon, Much Marcle, 1350 Shoes, Richard Torrington, Berkhamsted, 1356
William of Hatfield shoes Much Marcle St Bartholomew Walter de Helyon 1350 shoes Berkhamsted St Peter Richard and Margaret Torrington 1356
Shoes, Edmund Blanket, Bristol, 1371    
Bristol St Stephen Edmund Blanket 1371 and 2nd wife Margaret shoes    

Accoutrements:

Belts

Richly ornamented girdles and belts were worn

Belt, Edmund Blanket, Bristol, 1371

belt

Pouches

Men generally wore a belt, either a looped leather belt, or for the wealthy a linked plaque belt. Both kinds were typically worn low, around the hips. Hanging from the belt is almost always a pouch or bag, the types used were the aumônière or "alms bag" is a bell-shaped pouch worn by women in the 13th century but also by men in the 1th century. Rectangular drawstring pouches were worn, and over the shoulder bags for male and female travellers. Men also wore a gibecière or escarcelle, which is a kidney-shaped bag that hangs from two points often with a dagger, or couteau-coutelace. The dagger is usually thrust through the pouch, with a button connecting the sheath to the bag. This allowed the dagger to be drawn quickly.

Pouch Walter de Helyon, Much Marcle, 1350

Dagger through pouch, Thomas de Montsorel, Whitelackington, 1350

Pouch, Thomas Beauchamp and Katherine Mortimer weeper 35, 1369, Warwick
Much Marcle St Bartholomew Walter de Helyon 1350 pouch Whitelackington - St Mary Thomas de Montsorel 1350 Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 35 male civilian pouch

Belt

Belts were always important costume accessories, they were worn on the hip and were more elaborately decorated in this period than in the thirteenth century, by all classes. Mounted belts with precious metals were worn by the wealthy and poorer quality worn by the lower classes. Decorative and practical items were hung from belts, like the different pouches.

Belt, Thomas Beauchamp and Katherine Mortimer weeper 3, 1369, Warwick

Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 3 male civilian belt

Belt, Thomas Beauchamp and Katherine Mortimer weeper 19, 1369, Warwick

belt

Belt, Thomas Beauchamp and Katherine Mortimer weeper 21, 1369, Warwick

Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 21 male civilian belt

Belt, Thomas Beauchamp and Katherine Mortimer weeper 33, 1369, Warwick

Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 33 male civilian belt

Belt, Thomas de Vere weeper, Bures, 1371

, Thomas de Vere weeper, Bures, 1371

Baldrick

Also Baldric, bawdric, baudry, bauderyck; worn from around 1340, a wide leather belt or silk sash, usually made of leather and decorated, worn round the hips and passing over one shoulder and sometimes hung with bells. Used to support the wearer's sword, horn, etc. In the tale of Sir Gawain and the Green knight it says that all knights of the round table wore a green baldric to commemorate that adventure.

Dagger and baldrick, Thomas de Vere weeper, Bures, 1371 Dagger and baldrick, Thomas de Vere weeper, Bures, 1371 Dagger and baldrick, Thomas de Vere weeper, Bures, 1371
Bures St Stephen Thomas de Vere 1371 weeper dagger and baldrick 437 Bures St Stephen Thomas de Vere 1371 weeper dagger and baldrick Thomas de Vere weeper dagger and baldric

 

Daggers

Bollock Dagger, Walter de Helyon, Much Marcle, 1350 Dagger, Thomas Beauchamp and Katherine Mortimer weeper 19, 1369, Warwick Dagger, Thomas Beauchamp and Katherine Mortimer weeper 27, 1369, Warwick Dagger, Thomas Beauchamp and Katherine Mortimer weeper 35, 1369, Warwick
Much Marcle St Bartholomew Walter de Helyon 1350 dagger Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 19 male baldrick and dagger Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 27 male civilian dagger Warwick - St Mary Thomas Beauchamp 1369 and wife Katherine mortimer 1369 weeper 35 male civilian dagger and baldrick

Aprons were worn by various trades and craftsmen.

 

Richard II 1377-99

Fashions from Edward III reign were still popular, with parti coloured clothes still worn, but changes occurred between 1380 and 1390 with a German influence and a Franco-Burgundian influence of folly bells and jewelled collars. The rich wore silk, satin, frieze (a thick woolen cloth), fustian, fine woolen cloths with taffeta for linings and russet for poorer men.

Head: Lower classes still wore hoods as throughout the 14th Century. Wearing the hat or chaperon with the liripipe was now very popular. The latter half of this reign saw the introduction of tall crowned hats with rolled brims, or beaver hats with upturned brims.

The hair was worn bobbed until around 1395 when it was curled outward in a thick roll covering the tips of the ears and falling lower around the nape of the neck. Hair was sometimes stained by the very rich with yellow with saffron, the hair was long and bound about the brow by bands of gold ornamented with enameled flowers. Moustaches were fashion-able; older men wore beards trimmed to two points. Chaucer mentions forked beards. Richard II had a small mustache and two small tufts on the edge of his chin.

Chaplet

A type of head ornament in the form of a garland, wreath, or ornamented band, to be worn around the head. Chaplets were made of metal with repoussé decoration or embellished with gemstones and pearls

Coif

Coif and hood, John and Alice Cassey, Deerhurst, 1400

Deerhurst St Mary John and Alice Cassey 1400

Hoods

Hood, John Kyggesfolde, Rusper, 1370 Hood, Civilian, Kings Somborne, 1380 Hood, Civilian, Cheam, 1390 Hood, Thomas Chichele, Higham Ferrers, 1400
Rusper - St Mary John Kyggesfolde 1370 and wife Agnes 1370 Kings Somborne - St Peter and St Paul Civilian II 1380 Cheam - St Dunstan Civilian 2 1390 Higham Ferrers - St Mary Thomas and Agnes Chichele 1400

The chaperon was worn, or a cap decorated with a single ostrich plume in front.

Body: A shirt was worn as an undergarment made of linen or silk for the wealthy. Linen was made from the flax plant and was relatively easy to bleach and clean of sweat and body oils providing a layer protecting the skin from what may often have been a coarse wool, as well as helping to stop the sweat and body oils from entering into the layer above.

At the end of the century, the gipon was shortened to above the mid thigh and was worn with a belt at hip level. A doublet was a buttoned jacket that was generally of hip length and was worn from about 1340 onwards.

By 1380 the houppelande was worn by men and women with long wide hanging sleeves. It had a high neck reaching to the ears and a rich turned over border. The skirt was slit at the front or sides and had a higher waist. Towards the end of the reign the 'bagpipe' sleeve appeared which hung full as in the previous sleeve but had a small cuff at the wrist. The skirts, sleeves and neck borders were often dagged or folded back and lined with contrasting material. The gypon beneath was only visible in its tight sleeves. The girdle which may have been embroidered and jewelled holds together the long skirt of the houppelande.

Houppelande, unknown civilain St Albans, 1400

Houppelande

The cote-hardie was buttoned over the padded gypon, being cut very short and tight at the neck and sleeves.

Cotehardie with dagging, weeper of John and Nanrina Thornbury, Little Munden, 1396

Cotehardie

 

Gown

Gown with fitchet, William de la Pole, Hull, 1381

gown

Cloaks

Cloaks fastened on the right shoulder.

Legs:

Braes made of linen were worn covering the loins, and over the C14 continued to shorten and by the end of the reign of Richard II some were barely short enough to cover any thigh.

On the legs the hose were worn from toe to hip and were attached to the doublet or gypon by points (laves with tag ends) to a series of matching eyelets. The smarter the hose, the more points were used. The inventories of the wealthy show hose of silk and velvet, and wool was the most common worn by all classes and generally lined. Red hose were fashionable as were parti coloured and vaiegated hose. As the hose attachment level rose it became one garment forming joined hose with a codpiece. Joined hose did not appear much before 1385 according to Dorothy Hartley in Medieval Costume and how to create it, pg 35. A codpiece was worn being made up of a triangular piece of material fastened by points. Garters were worn over those below the knee.

A royal inventory from 1387 mentions tights knitted of scarlet wool. Anyway, tights were soon stretched out by wearing (just like shoes were quickly worn out, having thin leather soles). This is the reason why one can find an appalling number of tights in royal inventories. In 1396, for instance, King Charles VI of France had 131 pairs of soled tights (chausses semelléesin the French texts), in red, black and white, 189 pairs of "plain" tights in the same colours, and eight pairs of houseaulx, signifying leather leggings worn over the tights for riding.

Feet:

Soled hose were still worn but also shoes of the wealthy were often embroidered and jewelled, but this fashion died out as shoes became very pointed, and were often stuffed with material to keep the shape or allowed to flop.

Cracowes (French Poulaines) were introduced into England in 1384 and named after Cracow, Poland, where they were first used. A wooden sole, raised under the toes and ball of the foot with a pointed projection in front, intended to support the extremely long toe of the shoe, was held on by straps across the instep. It has been said that some were held to the knee by chains of silver or silver gilt, but no evidence has been found for this.

From 1390 pattens or Galoches with wooden soles were used to raise the foot from the ground and keep the sole away from mud and water.

Shoes, John Corp, Stoke Fleming St Mary 1361 brass 1391

Stoke Fleming St Mary John Corp 1361 and grand daughter Elyenore 1391 shoes

Shoes, Civilian II, Kings Somborne, 1380

medieval shoes

Accoutrements:

Folly bells and jewelled collars were worn and bells were also hung on little chains from the girdle where also the purse and dagger were carried.

Aprons were worn by various trades and craftsmen.

Jewelry was worn in abundance; despite sumptuary laws this was a time of great extravagance in dress. Feathers were placed on tournament helmets. Wide gold chains encircled the shoulders, either over the cote-hardie or the houppelande, from which hung ornaments or charms.

Richard II is credited with having invented the handkerchief; "little pieces [of cloth] for the lord King to wipe and clean his nose," appear in the Household Rolls (accounts), which is the first documentation of their use.

Belt

Belt, Civilian I, Kings Somborne, 1380 Belt, Civilian II, Kings Somborne, 1380 Belt, dagger and fitchet, William de la Pole, Hull, 1381 Belt, Thomas Ellis, Sandwich, 1392
Kings Somborne - St Peter and St Paul Civilian I 1380 belt Civilian II, Kings Somborne, 1380 belt Sandwich - St Peter Thomas Ellis and wife 1392 belt

Daggers

Dagger, Civilian I, Kings Somborne, 1380 Dagger, Civilian II, Kings Somborne, 1380 Dagger, John Corp died 1361, Stoke Fleming, brass about 1391
belt, Civilian I, Kings Somborne, 1380 Civilian II, Kings Somborne, 1380 Stoke Fleming St Mary John Corp 1361 and grand daughter Elyenore 1391 dagger

Baldrick

Also Baldric, bawdric, baudry, bauderyck; a wide leather belt or silk sash, usually made of leather and decorated, worn round the hips and passing over one shoulder and sometimes hung with bells. Used to support the wearer's sword, horn, etc. In the tale of Sir Gawain and the Green knight it says that all knights of the round table wore a green baldric to commemorate that adventure.

Baldrick for dagger, John Corp died 1361, Stoke Fleming, brass about 1391

Stoke Fleming St Mary John Corp 1361 and grand daughter Elyenore 1391 baldrick

Pouches

Men generally wore a belt, either a looped leather belt, or for the wealthy a linked plaque belt. Both kinds were typically worn low, around the hips. Hanging from the belt is almost always a pouch or bag, the types used were the aumônière or "alms bag" is a bell-shaped pouch worn by women in the 13th century but also by men in the 1th century. Rectangular drawstring pouches were worn, and over the shoulder bags for male and female travellers. Men also wore a gibecière or escarcelle, which is a kidney-shaped bag that hangs from two points often with a dagger, or couteau-coutelace. The dagger is usually thrust through the pouch, with a button connecting the sheath to the bag. This allowed the dagger to be drawn quickly.

The Gipciere was the name given to a highly decorated purse of the fourteenth century.

 

Children

New borns were swaddled, often with carrying boards. Throughout the Fourteenth Century frrom when they could walk, children wore miniature simplified versions of their parents clothes, boys upto between four and six years were dressed as girls.

 

Nightwear

All classes and both sexes are usually shown sleeping naked (special nightwear only became common in the 16th century) yet some married women wore their chemises to bed as a form of modesty and piety. Many in the lower classes wore their undergarments to bed because of the cold weather at nighttime and since their beds usually consisted of a straw mattress and a few sheets.

 

Costume Bibliography

A short history of costume & armour, Francis M. Kelly, Randolph Schwabe, 1931

The Chronicle of Western Costume: From the Ancient World to the Late Twentieth Century, John Peacock, 1991

Costume 1066 to the present John Peacock, 1984

English Costume of the Later Middle Ages, Iris Brooke, 1935

English Costume, painted and described by Dion Clayton Calthrop, 1931

Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince: A Study of the Years 1340-1365, Stella Mary Newton, 1980

History of British costume, by James Robinson Planché, 1834

Medieval Costume and how to create it, Dorothy Hartley, 1931

Medieval Costume and Weapons, Eduard Wagner, Zoroslava Drobna, Jan Durdik, 1958

Medieval Costume in England and France, Mary G. Houston, 1939

Medieval Dress and Fashion, Margaret Scott, 2007

The Medieval Taylors Assistant, Sarah Thursfield, 2001

Shoes and Pattens, Francis Grew and Margrethe de Neergaard, 1988

 

 

pg 58, Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince: A Study of the Years 1340-1365, Stella Mary Newton, 1980

 

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