The Medieval Combat Society

Home Events Join Us Book Us About
Gallery History Heraldry Links For Kids

Historical Information

Thomas Plantagenet of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Buckingham, Earl of Essex, Duke of Aumale 1355-1397

Born: 7 January 1355, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England

Died: 8 September 1397, Prince's Inn, Pas De Calais, Calais, France

Buried: Collegiate Church of the Holy Trinity, St Edmunds, Westminster, Middlesex, England

Parents: Edward III (born 13 November 1312, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, christened 16 November 1312, Royal Chapel Windsor, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, died 21 June 1377, Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey, buried Westminster Abbey, Middlesex) married (24 January 1328 at York Minster, Yorkshire) Phillipa of Hainault (born 24 June 1311, Valenciennes, died 14 August 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. Died of the Plague, buried Westminster Abbey, London)


Prince Edward "The Black Prince" Plantagenet of Wales (15 June 1330, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, 8 June 1376, Westminster Palace, Middlesex, 29 September 1376, Canterbury Cathedral, Kent) married: (10 October 1361 at the Royal Chapel of St George at Windsor Castle, Berkshire) Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" (Born 29 September 1328, died 8 August 1385, Wallingford Castle, Buried Stamford, Lincolnshire, buried Grey Friars Minor, Stamford, Lincolnshire) Joan had previously married 1: William Montacute Earl of Salisbury (born 20 June 1328, Donyatt, Somerset, died 3 June1397) Joan had previously married 2: Thomas de Holland Earl of Kent (born 1314, died 26 December 1360, Normandy)

Princess Isabel Plantagenet of England, Countess of Bedford, (born 16 June 1332 Palace,Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, died before 4 May 1379 Grey Friars, Newgate, Middlesex, England. buried Grey Friars, Newgate, Middlesex, England) married: (27 July 1365, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England) Enguerrand Le Brun VII De Coucy, 7th Earl of Bedford. (born 1339, died 18 February 1397, Bursa, Anatolia)

Joan (Joanna) Plantagenet of England (born February 1335 Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England, died 2 September 1348 Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France, died of the Bubonic Plague, buried Bayonne Cathedral, Gascony, France) Never married

William Plantagenet (born 16 February 1336 Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England, died before 3 March 1337, buried York Minster, York, England)

Lionel "Of Antwerp" Plantagenet Duke of Clarence (born 29 November 1338 Antwerp, Antwerp Belgium, died 17 October 1368 Alba, Cuneo, Italy, buried in Clare, Suffolk, England) married 1: (15 August 1342 / 9 Sep 1342, Tower of London, London, Middlesex, England) Elizabeth de Burgh Countess of Ulster (born 7 June 1332, Carrickfergus, Ulster, died 12 October 1363, Dublin, Ireland, buried Clare Priory, Essex), daughter of William de Burgh Earl of Ulster (born 1312, died 1333, Murdered at Le Ford, Belfast) married Maud (died 1377, Bruisyard Abbey, Suffolk) she later married Ralph de Ufford (died 9 April 1346, Kilmainham, Ireland) married 2: (28 May/5 June 1368, Church of St Maria Maggiore, Milano, Italy) Violante Visconti (born 1353, Milano, Italy, died November 1382/6, Pavia, Italy)

Prince John "Of Gaunt" Plantagenet Earl of Richmond, 1st Duke of Lancaster (born 24 June 1340 St Bavon Abbey, Gand (Ghent), Flandre-Orientale (Belgium), died 3 February 1398 Leicester Castle, England, buried 15 March 1399 St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England) married 1: (19 May 1359) Blanche Plantagenet daughter of Henry Plantagenet (born March 25 1345, died 12 September 1369 married 2: Constance, elder daughter of Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon. (died 1394) married 3: Catherine Roet, daughter of Sir Payne Roet and widow of Sir Hugh Swynford

Edmund Plantagenet Duke of York (born 5 June 1341 King's Langley, Hertfordshire, England, died 1 August 1402 Langley, Hertfordshire, England) married 1: (1 January 1370/1371) Isabel Perez married 2: (4 November 1393) Joan Holland

Blanche Plantagenet (born March 1342 Tower Of London, London, Middlesex, England, died March 1342 Tower of London)

Mary Plantagenet, Duchess of Brittany (born 10 October 1344 Bishops Waltham, Hampshire, England, died 1361/62, buried Abingdon Abbey, Berkshire, England) married (1361, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England) Jean Montfort. Duke of Brittany

Margaret Plantagenet Countess Of Pembroke (born 20 July 1346 Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England, died after 1 October 1361, buried Abingdon Abbey, Abingdon, Berkshire, England) married (19 May 1359 Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire, England) John Hastings (born 29 August 1347, Sutton Valence, died 16 April 1375, Picardy, France, buried 28 April 1376 Friars Preachers, Hereford, Herefordshire, England)

Thomas Plantagenet (born 1347)

William Plantagenet (born before 24 June 1348 Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England, buried 5 September 1348)

Joan Plantagenet

Associated with: Alice Perrers

John De Southeray (born about 1364, Acceded 1377, died after 1383) married Matilda Percy

Joan Plantagenet married Robert Skerne

Jane Plantagenet married Richard Northland

Associated with: Unknown

Nicholas Lytlington, Abbot of Westminster (died 1386) Never claimed to be a kings son

Married: 24 August 1376

Spouse: Eleanor De Bohun, (Alianore), Duchess of Gloucester, (born 1366, died 3 October 1399, Minories Convent, Aldgate, London) daughter of Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford (born 1342, died 1373) married Joan FitzAlan (died 1419)


1. Humphrey Plantagenet, 1st Earl of Buckingham (born 1381, died 1399)

2. Anne Plantagenet, of Gloucester, Countess of Stafford and Eu (born 1383, died 16 October 1438) married 1: Thomas de Stafford Earl of Stafford (born 1368, died 4 July 1392, Westminster), married 2: Edmund de Stafford Earl of Stafford (born 2 March 1377 died 21 July 1403, Slain at battle of Shrewsbury), married 3: William Bourchier Count of Eu (born before 1374, Little Eaton, Essex, died 28 May 1420, Troyes, Aube, France)

3. Joan Plantagenet (born 1384, died 1399) married Gilbert Talbot Lord Talbot (born 1383, died 19 October 1418, Rouen)

4. Isabella Plantagenet (Nun)

5. Phillippa Plantagenet (born 1389, died 3 October 1399)

Heraldic Coat of Arms: France (ancient) and England quarterly, a bordure argent.

Also given as France ancient and England quarterly, within a bordure argent; impaling Azure a bend argent cotised or between six lioncels rampant of the last

Knight of the Garter 1380, Stall 15, became a member of the order of the garter after the death of Guichard d'Angle

Thomas was born after two short-lived sons, one of whom had also been baptised Thomas. He was born at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. On 16 July 1377 he was created Earl of Buckingham. He also inherited the title Earl of Essex from his father-in-law, Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford on 22 June 1380. In 1385 he received the title Duke of Aumale, and was created Duke of Gloucester on 6 August 1385 at Hoselow Lodge, Tividale

On July 19 1380 Thomas landed at Calais for an expedition in which Richard II had funded by pawning the crown Jewels for £10,000 and consisted of 5,060 men, about half being archers. Buckingham adavanced to Burgundy and at the gate of Troyes a skirmish was fought lasting about 1 hour. The expedition took a wide detour through northern France, swinging as far west as the County of Champagne, pillaging and burning. The French refused to be drawn into a general engagement. When Buckingham's army finally arrived in Brittany, the political situation had changed, with the succession of a new French king and peace between Brittany and France seemed likely.In March 1381 the expedition returned to England.

Thomas and his wife had one son and four daughters. Following his murder where he was probably smothered to death at the Inn he was staying at (possibly on the orders of his nephew, King Richard II of England), at Calais in 1395, his title passed to his son, Humphrey, and subsequently to his eldest daughter, Anne.

Medieval Combat Society re-enactment©2003 The Medieval Combat Society

Home EventsJoin UsBook UsAboutGalleryHistoryHeraldryLinksFor Kids Mediaeval Combat Society