The Medieval Combat Society
Also known as Jean de Montfort, Montford, the conqueror, Duke of Bretagne, duc de Bretagne, Earl of Richemont
Died: 1 September 1399, Nantes
Buried: Nantes Cathedral
Parents: John/Jean de Montfort, Earl of Richmond, Count of Montfort, Duke of Brittany (born 1293, died 16 September 1345, Hennebont) married (1329, Chartes) Joanna of Flanders (died 1374)
Married 1: 1361, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England
Spouse 1: Mary Plantagenet (born 10 October 1344 Bishops Waltham, Hampshire, England, died 1361/62, buried Abingdon Abbey, Berkshire, England) daughter of Edward III (born 13 November 1312, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, christened 16 November 1312, Royal Chapel Windsor, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, died 21 June 1377, Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey, buried Westminster Abbey, Middlesex) married (24 January 1328 at York Minster, Yorkshire) Phillipa of Hainault (born 24 June 1311, Valenciennes, died 14 August 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. Died of the Plague, buried Westminster Abbey, London)
Married 2: 1366
Spouse 2: Jean/Joanna of Holland, countess of Kent (born 1350, died before 27 November 1384, buried Nôtre Dame de Prières Abbey) daughter of Thomas de Holand 1st Earl of Kent (born 1320, died 27 December 1360) married Joan the fair maid of Kent ( born 29 September 1328, died 8 August 1385)
Married 3: 11 September 1386, Saille, Near Guerrand, Spain
Spouse 3: princess Joanna De Evreux of Navarre (born about 1370 Pampalona, died 9 July 1437, Havering, Bower, Essex, England, buried Canterbury Cathedral) (daughter of king Charles II, Charles the bad of Navarre), Joanna married (7 February 1403) 2: Henry IV of Bolingbroke (born 3 April 1367, Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, died 20 March 1413)
Jeanne de Montfort (born 1387, died 1388)
daughter (born 1388, died 1388)
Jean V De Dreux Duke Of Brittany (born 1389, died 1422/1442 Nantes) married (1396) Jeanne De Valois (born 1391, died 1433) daughter of Charles VI, king of France
Marie de Montfort (born 1391, died 1446) married Jean I d'Alençon (born about 1390, died 1415)
Arthur III of Richmond de Montfort, Duke of Brittany (born about 1392, died 1458) married (1423) 1: Marguerite de Bourgogne (born 1390, died 1441), married 2: Jeanne d'Albret, married 3: Katherine de Luxembourg
Giles de Montfort Lord de Chantocé (born 1394, died 1412)
Richard de Montfort Comte d'Éstampes (born 1395, died 1438) married (1423) Marguerite d'Orleans (born 1390, died 1466)
Blanche de Montfort (born 1396, died about 1418) married Jean d'Armagnac, Comte d'Armagnac (died after 1448)
Marguerite de Montfort (born 1397, died 13 April 1428) married (9 April 1407) Alain IX de Rohan, Vicomte de Rohan, Comte de Porhoët (died 20 March 1462)
Heraldic Coat of Arms: checquy or and azure, bordure of England, over all a canton ermine
Knight of the Garter 1375, Stall 4, became a member of the order of the garter after the death of John Hastings
After the death of his father Jean was only 6 years old, and his mother drove the fight against his cousin Joanna Penthièvre of Dreux, wife of Charles of Blois for the Dukedom of Brittany. Jeans claim was influenced by the succession of the French throne that royal succession could not pass through the female line, which later became known as the Salic Law. Jean retook Quimper, which opened its gates without a fight. In 1346 Charles de Blois was defeated and was taken prisoner in la Roche-Derrien. In 1357 Jean took control of the war in his own right. On 22 June 1362 Edward III anounced his support for Jean as Duke of Brittany, and Jean returned to Brittany. In July 1363 Jean and Charles agreed to The truce of Evran, whereby they were to appear before Prince Edward at Poitiers. A proposed settlement was made whereby both parties would hold the title Duke of Brittany and the Duchy would be split. On September 1363 diplomats from both parties met at Poitiers to arrange for a meeting between Jean and Charles. In February 1364 Jean and Charles met, but Charles refused to speak to Jean directly and refused to agree to the proposed settlement.
In May 1364 Bertrand Dugueslin captures again the castle of Pestivien with 6000 men. John Chandos leading the English defeated the French at the battle of Auray on 29 September 1364, and Charles of Blois was killed and Olivier De Clisson and Bertrand Du Guesclin are captured. The wife of Charles, Joanna was forced to sign the Treaty Guérande on 12 April 1365 whereby Joanna gave up her rights to Brittany and recognized Jean as the Duke of Brittany. Jean would pay Joanna 10,000 livres per year and ensure the release of her 2 sons held in England. Under the treaty the Duchy of Brittany would remain a fief of France.
In January 1368 Jean complained to the Pope against Franciscan monks telling of miracles at the Abbey of Guingamp where Charles of Blois was buried. Jean made the complaint so as not to have fought against a person who would be the source of miracles. In 1904 the cult of the blessd (not saint) Charles de Blois was confirmed by Pope Pius X.
On 23rd April 1371 Jean ordered his garrison at Champtoceaux to hold out against the French. In 1372 Jean renounced his loyalty to France and fled to England. On 20 June 1372 Jean was made the Earl of Richmond in its 8th creation. Jean declared himself a vassal to king Charles V of France, and the French exerted pressure over Brittany and the local nobles and forced Jean to exile between 1373 and 1379, when he returnd to Brittany. In 1373 Bertrand Du Guesclin captured the Castle of Jugon-les-Lacs and Bertrand is quoted as saying “Qui a Bretagne sans Jugon a chape sans chaperon", "Brittany without Jugon is like a hooded cloak without its hood". In 1373 Bertrand captured Quimper.
In 1377 Jean was present at the coronation of Richard II, and also in 1377 he sailed with the English fleet to attack the Spanish at Sluys. In December 1378 the peers of the realm of France tried Jean de Montfort in his absence. Jean's title was declared null and Charles V announced that Brittany was now part of France. In 1380 the army of Jean met up with that of the Duke of Gloucester and Sir John Knollys who had led the army from Calais to Brittany, but the raid achieved little but destruction.
In January 1381 Jean negotiated with Enguerrand de Coucy at the Treaty of Vincennes where Charles VI recognised him as Duke of Brittany. At the second Treaty of Guérande on 4th April 1381 Jean aligned himself with France. In 1381 Jean founded 'The order of Ermine'. In 1387 Jean de Montfort seizes and imprisons Olivier de Clisson, threatening to kill him, but is persuaded to release him for a ransom. Jean later regreted that he had not killed Olivier. In 1388 Jean negotiated with England that he would provide armies for England and receive an annual pension of 10,000 livres and if Jean died without an heir the Duchy of Brittany would be given to Richard II. Through October to December 1391 Jean negotiated with Enguerrand de Coucy.
In 1397 Jean negotiated with the English and regained the town of Brest. Upon the death of Jean the title of Earl of Richmond reverted to the English crown, but was claimed by the Dukes of Brittany for many years.