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Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408

Born: 10 November 1341

Christened:

Died: 20 February 1408 Bramham Moor, near Halsewood, England

Buried:

Parents: Henry de Percy 3rd Lord Percy (born 1322, died 18 May 1368) married 1: (September 1334) Mary Plantagenet (born 1320, died 1 September 1362, Tutbury Castle, England, buried Alnwick, Northumberland, England) married 2: (1365) Joan de Oreby

Siblings:

Thomas de Percy1st Earl of Worcester (born 1343, died 23 July 1403, buried St. Peter's, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England)

Mary Percy (born 1360, died 1395) married John Ros Baron Ros of Helmsley

Married 1: 12 July 1358

Spouse 1: Margaret/Matilda de Neville (born before 1336, died 12 May 1372) daughter of Ralph de Neville, 2nd Lord Neville married Alice Audley (born before 1289, died 12 January 1373/4), Margaret de Neville firstly married (before 8 May 1341) William de Ros 3rd Lord Ros of Helmsley (born 19 May 1329, died before 3 December 1352)

Offspring 1:

Ralph Percy (died 15 September 1397) married (before 20 March 1376/77) Philippa of Atholl

Thomas Percy (born 1362, died 1388, Spain) married Elizabeth of Atholl (born before 1367, died after 1416)

Henry Percy, Harry 'Hotspur' (born 20 May 1364, 21 July 1403) married Elizabeth de Mortimer (born 12 February 1371, died 20 April 1417, buried, Trotton, Sussex, England)

Alan Percy

Margaret Percy

Married 2: before 3 October 1383

Spouse 2: Maud Lucy (born before 1359, died 18 December 1398) daughter of Sir Thomas Lucy, 2nd Baron Lucy of Cockermouth (born before 1343) married Margaret Multon. Maud firstly married firstly, Gilbert de Umfreville10th Earl of Angus (born about 1310, died 6 January 1380/81)

Offspring 2:

Heraldic Coat of Arms: or, a lion rampant azure

Knight of the Garter 1366, Stall 9, became a member of the order of the garter after the death of Richard de la Vache

Henry was in France, leading troops by the age of 18, in 1359, and again in 1363. In 1368 he was with Edward III at Calais and also led an army at Poitou, but was forced by illness to return to England in 1369, but was back in France until 1376. In 1377 he was Commander of the forces sent to garrison French towns held under the occupation of English forces. Also in 1377 he went into Scotland at the head of an army of 10,000 men in order to avenge the burning of Roxborough by the Scots. Henry became the Warden of the Scottish Marches. Henry supported John Wycliffe.

Richard II gave Henry the title Marshal of England and created earl of Northumberland at Richard II's coronation in 1377, but later in 1377 gave the title of Earl Marshal to John Fitzalan. In 1378 Henry besieged Berwick which had been taken by the Scots and after an 8 day siege the garrison of 48 men were executed. In 1399 Richard II suspected Henry of Treason and summoned Henry to appear before him, but he refused to do so. Henry switched allegiance to Henry Bolingbroke, who deposed Richard II in 1399 to become Henry IV. In 1399 Henry IV made Henry Percy Constable of England and made him Lord of the Isle of Man. In 1402 the Scots were defeated at the battle of Homildon Hill and differences arose with Henry IV regarding prisoners ransoms and led to a quarrel between the king and Henry and his son also Henry Percy, but more commonly known as Harry Hotspur. In 1403 Henry supported Edmund Mortimer against Henry IV, together with his son, and his brother Thomas Percy earl of Worcester. At the battle of Shrewsbury his son was killed and the rebellion was stopped and Henry lost his position as Constable of England, but escaped the charge of treason as he had not been at the battle and Henry was held in prison for some time. In 1405 he plotted with Owen Glendower against Henry IV and also in 1405 Richard le Scrope, archbishop of York, led a rebellion against Henry IV which was supported by Henry, but Richard was defeated before Henry could met up with him and was forced to flee to Scotland. Henry IV moved northwards with an army to take the strongholds of Henry Percy, and captured Prudhoe, Warkwarth, Berwick and Alnwick which had not surrendered and been bypassed, but gave up after cannon fire was used against it. In 1408 Henry invaded England but was killed at the battle of Branham Moor, 20 February 1408. Henry had the keep constructed of Warkwarth Castle, Warkwarth, Northumbria, England, as well as work on Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England.

Henry and his son are in William Shakespeare's play Henry IV

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