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Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine, Baron of Wallingford, Berkshire, Trematon 1330-1376

Also known as the Prince Noir or The Black Prince

Born: 15 June 1330, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire

Died: 8 June 1376, Westminster Palace, Middlesex

Buried: 29 September 1376, Canterbury Cathedral, Kent

Parents: Edward III (born 13 November 1312, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, christened 16 November 1312, Royal Chapel Windsor, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, died 21 June 1377, Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey, buried Westminster Abbey, Middlesex) married (24 January 1328 at York Minster, Yorkshire) Phillipa of Hainault (born 24 June 1311, Valenciennes, died 14 August 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. Died of the Plague, buried Westminster Abbey, London)


Princess Isabel Plantagenet of England, Countess of Bedford, (born 16 June 1332 Palace,Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, died before 4 May 1379 Grey Friars, Newgate, Middlesex, England. buried Grey Friars, Newgate, Middlesex, England) married: (27 July 1365, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England) Enguerrand Le Brun VII De Coucy, 7th Earl of Bedford. (born 1339, died 18 February 1397, Bursa, Anatolia)

Joan (Joanna) Plantagenet of England (born February 1335 Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England, died 2 September 1348 Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France, died of the Bubonic Plague, buried Bayonne Cathedral, Gascony, France) Never married

William Plantagenet (born 16 February 1336 Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England, died before 3 March 1337, buried York Minster, York, England)

Lionel "Of Antwerp" Plantagenet Duke of Clarence (born 29 November 1338 Antwerp, Antwerp Belgium, died 17 October 1368 Alba, Cuneo, Italy, buried in Clare, Suffolk, England) married 1: (15 August 1342 / 9 Sep 1342, Tower of London, London, Middlesex, England) Elizabeth de Burgh Countess of Ulster (born 7 June 1332, Carrickfergus, Ulster, died 12 October 1363, Dublin, Ireland, buried Clare Priory, Essex), daughter of William de Burgh Earl of Ulster (born 1312, died 1333, Murdered at Le Ford, Belfast) married Maud (died 1377, Bruisyard Abbey, Suffolk) she later married Ralph de Ufford (died 9 April 1346, Kilmainham, Ireland) married 2: (28 May/5 June 1368, Church of St Maria Maggiore, Milano, Italy) Violante Visconti (born 1353, Milano, Italy, died November 1382/6, Pavia, Italy)

Prince John "Of Gaunt" Plantagenet Earl of Richmond, 1st Duke of Lancaster (born 24 June 1340 St Bavon Abbey, Gand (Ghent), Flandre-Orientale (Belgium), died 3 February 1398 Leicester Castle, England, buried 15 March 1399 St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Middlesex, England) married 1: (19 May 1359) Blanche Plantagenet daughter of Henry Plantagenet (born March 25 1345, died 12 September 1369 married 2: Constance, elder daughter of Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon. (died 1394) married 3: Catherine Roet, daughter of Sir Payne Roet and widow of Sir Hugh Swynford

Edmund Plantagenet Duke of York (born 5 June 1341 King's Langley, Hertfordshire, England, died 1 August 1402 Langley, Hertfordshire, England) married 1: (1 January 1370/1371) Isabel Perez married 2: (4 November 1393) Joan Holland

Blanche Plantagenet (born March 1342 Tower Of London, London, Middlesex, England, died March 1342 Tower of London, Middlesex, England, buried Westminster Abbey, London, England)

Mary Plantagenet, Duchess of Brittany (born 10 October 1344 Bishops Waltham, Hampshire, England, died 1361/62, buried Abingdon Abbey, Berkshire, England) married (1361, Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England) Jean Montfort. Duke of Brittany

Margaret Plantagenet Countess Of Pembroke (born 20 July 1346 Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England, died after 1 October 1361, buried Abingdon Abbey, Abingdon, Berkshire, England) married (19 May 1359 Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire, England) John Hastings (born 29 August 1347, Sutton Valence, died 16 April 1375, Picardy, France, buried 28 April 1376 Friars Preachers, Hereford, Herefordshire, England)

Thomas Plantagenet (born 1347)

William Plantagenet (born before 24 June 1348 Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England, buried 5 September 1348, Westminster Abbey, London, England)

Thomas Plantagenet Duke Of Gloucester (born about 7 January 1354 Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, died (murdered) 9 September 1397 Calais, Pas-De-Calais, France, buried St Edmund's, Westminster, Middlesex, England) married (24 August 1376) Eleanor de Bohun (Alianore), Duchess of Gloucester, (born 1366, died 3 October 1399, Minories Convent, Aldgate, London) daughter of Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford (born 1342, died 1373) married Joan FitzAlan (died 1419)

Joan Plantagenet

Associated with: Alice Perrers

John De Southeray/John de Surrey(born about 1364, Acceded 1377, died after 1383) married Matilda Percy

Joan Plantagenet married Robert Skerne

Jane Plantagenet married Richard Northland

Associated with: Unknown

Nicholas Lytlington, Abbot of Westminster (died 1386) Never claimed to be a kings son

Married: 10 October 1361 Royal Chapel of St George, Windsor Castle, Berkshire

Spouse: Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" (Born 29 September 1328, died 8 August 1385, Wallingford Castle, Buried Stamford, Lincolnshire, buried Grey Friars Minor, Stamford, Lincolnshire) Joan had previously married 1: William Montacute Earl of Salisbury (born 20 June 1328, Donyatt, Somerset, died 3 June 1397) Joan had previously married 2: Thomas de Holland Earl of Kent (born 1314, died 26 December 1360, Normandy)


With Edith de Willesford

Sir Roger de Clarendon (born 1345-1360, died 1402)

With Unknown

Sir John Sounders
John de Galeis
Edward of England (born 1349, died young)

With Joan 'the Fair Maid of Kent' Plantagenet, Countess of Kent:

Edward, (born 27 January 1365, Angoulême, died January 1372, Bordeaux)

Richard (born 6 January 1367, died 6 January 1399/14 February 1400), afterwards King Richard II (1377-1399) married 1: Anne, daughter of Charles IV, king of Bohemia married 2: Isabel daughter of Charles IV, king of Bohemia

Heraldic Coat of Arms: Quarterly of 1 and 4 France (ancient: Azure semy of fleurs de lys or); 2 and 3 England (Gules in pale three lions passant guardant or), a label of 3 points argent

Order of The Garter 1348, founder member, Stall 2

Born at the royal palace of Woodstock, Oxfordshire, in June 1330 Prince Edward, eldest son of Edward III became one of the most famous medieval warriors of all time, and was described as 'the flower of chivalry'. His famous nickname, The Black Prince, probably dates from two hundred years after his death, (first reference is in 1569, Grafton (1563), who writes (Chronicle,p. 324, printed 1569), 'Edward, prince of Wales, who was called the blacke prince;' Holinshed (iii. 348, b, 20)Wikisource) and there seems to be little evidence that he wore the black armour that inspired the name. It has been thought that the predominance of black on his shield of peace however, may be the reason as given by Arthur Charles Fox-Davies. Apparently it was originally a French term of fear and hatred, for this "prins noire" who had so humiliated them. To the English, however, he came to symbolize all that was brightest and most noble in a tumultuous century of war and plague. He spent the first 7 years with his mother and his governess at an early age was the Lady Elizabeth, wife of William Saint-Omer, Steward of the Prince's household. He gained the title of Earl of Chester on 18 March 1333 and at age 5 was ordered by Edward to attend to the castles and the guard of his county. From the age 7 to 14 he was with his fathers court, where Dr Burley was appointed his tutor. At the age of 14 he was created a squire. He gained the title of Duke of Cornwall on 3 March 1337. In July 1338 he was given the title guardian of England. He gained the title of Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343, although he appears to have never visited Wales. Edward was made a founder knight of the garter in 1348, and lead one side at St George's Chapel in Windsor. He was created Prince of Aquitaine on 19 July 1362. He gained the title of Lord of Biscay and Castro Urdiales Castille on 23 September 1366. He abdicated as Prince of Aquitaine before 28 December 1375.

He had two motto's:

'Homout' - High Courage, displayed on his shield with the royal arms

'Ich Dene' - I serve, on his badge with silver Ostrich feathers (this is now ich dien)

Prince Edward's interest in war and its related activities dominated his life. He often staged very costly tournaments and banquets to celebrate his victories and gave expensive presents to his family and companions, and enjoyed expensive clothes. Prince Edward was also capable of acts of cruelty during his campaigns in Europe such as sacking of the town of Limoges in 1370 where all its inhabitants were slaughtered, with no consideration to age or gender, but this type of occurrence was also common practice in towns that resisted during this age. In February 1339 his father unsuccessfully tried to arrange marriage of Prince Edward, to margaret, the daughter of the Duke of Brabant. Prince Edward had several love affairs and fathered several children. He was taken by (with apparently substantial encouragement from her) his cousin Joan of Kent, known as "Fair Maid of Kent". Widowed in 1360, she was, at 33, a lovely, charming, and amorous woman of the high nobility, who in her youth had been named the the sister and heir of John Plantagenet, Earl of Kent, and relict of Sir Thomas Holland, in her right, also Earl of Kent. Two years her junior, Prince Edward had known his delightful cousin from childhood. To marry Joan required a special papal dispensation for him to marry a blood relative, she was his cousin once removed and Prince Edward was god father to 2 of her children. She also was a divorcee to the still living Earl of Salisbury, and the Archbishop of Canterbury warned him of the legitimacy of any children born. Edward III thought it a poor marriage, as he wanted Prince Edward, perhaps the most eligible bachelor in Europe, to bring with some political advantage on the continent. To the people of England, however, the wedding was a wonderful and romantic event, proof that their chivalric prince would not let practical considerations stand in the way of victory, honour, or love. The wedding contract was signed at the Archbishop's palace at Lambeth on 6 June 1361. The prince was married to Joan in the Royal Chapel of St. George at Windsor Castle, Berkshire on Sunday 10th October 1361. To celebrate the marriage Jean had made a red velvet bed decorated with silver ostrich feathers and gold leopards heads. They traveled to France and arrived in Gascony in June 1363. They had two sons, Edward, after his grandfather, born at Angoulême on 27th January 1365, who died at Bordeaux, age 6; and Richard, later King Richard II.

In 1346 Edward was with his father moving through France and on 26 August 1346, at Crecy where he was given command of the vanguard on the English right front with the experienced Earls of Warwick and Oxford, and Harcourt, Holland, Chandos, Audley and many others. Prince Edward's Welsh and Cheshire levies wore woolen courtepy and chaperon (short coat and cap), with green on the right side and white on the left. It is said that he took an Ostrich feather in honour of the blind King John of Bohemia, but this may have grown as a legend at a later date Wikisource. Arthur Charles Fox-Davies notes that the Ostrich feather was used by the counts of Hainault from Sir Harris Nicholas who has drawn attention to a silver gilt dish enamelled with a black escutcheon with ostrich feathers owned by Edwards mother Queen Philippa of Hainault. The Ostrich feather may be a pun on Ostrevans, which was held by the Counts of Hainault, see Stephen Friar. Pope Leo X (1475-1521) adopted 3 Ostrich feathers as his emblem and can be seen at the Vatican in Rome. During the battle of Crecy, Prince Edward was under great pressure and one of his deputies requested assistance. King Edward III is to said have said "Sir, the earl of Warwick and the earl of Oxford, sir Reynold Cobham and other, such as be about the prince your son, are fiercely fought withal and are sore handled; wherefore they desire you that you and your battle will come and aid them; for if the Frenchmen increase, as they doubt they will, your son and they shall have much ado." Edward replied "Is my son dead or hurt or on the earth felled?" "No, sir," replied the knight, "but he is hardly matched; wherefore he hath need of your aid." "Well," said the king, "return to him and to them that sent you hither, and say to them that they send no more to me for any adventure that falleth, as long as my son is alive: and also say to them that they suffer him this day to win his spurs; for if God be pleased, I will this journey be his and the honour thereof, and to them that be about him."

Prince Edward traveled with Edward III to Calais and laid siege to the town and then returned to England to raise more money. He had a house in Fish street and in 1347, his town residence was "Pulteney House," situated in or near Candlewick Street, in the parish later called St. Lawrence Pountney in the City of London. This mansion, had been erected, by Sir John Pulteney (who frequently filled the civic chair), on the site of the later Cold Harbour Palace. Its front was open to the Thames, where the prince kept a large number of swans. The Prince's country residences appear to have been his favourite at Berkhamstead Castle, Hertfordshire, where he enjoyed hawking, Wallingford Castle, Berkshire, Northbourne near Sandwich, Kent, Byfleet, Surrey, and Kennington Manor, Surrey. Prince Edward sent supplies and troops to the siege of Calais and returned there before its surrender in August 1347 and a truce was signed with the French. In 1349 King Edward heard of a plot to take Calais and lured the French into a trap, when he arrived on December 30 1349, and personally fought in the hand to hand combat, and at one point was nearly cut of but was saved by Prince Edward. On 29 August 1350 he fought in the sea battle in the channel against the Spanish fleet and Prince Edward's ship was holed in the fighting whilst alongside a Spanish ship. Henry of Lancaster saw the danger and moved his ship to he other side of the Spanish ship thus allowing its capture and Prince Edward's escape on to it.

He took part in the tournament at Woodstock, England in March 1355. At the expiration of the truce with France, on the 24 June 1355, Prince Edward began to prepare for his departure for Gascony, invested, as the King's lieutenant, in charge of all his French possessions. An indenture dated at Westminster 10 July 1355, between the King and Prince Edward, said that the Prince's retinue would be paid by the Edward III for 6 months in advance from the day of their embarkation and should consist of the Earls of Warwick, Suffolk, Oxford and Salisbury, Sir John de Lisle and Sir Reginald de Cobham, 433 men-at-arms and 700 archers, of whom 400 should be mounted and 300 on foot; which force, as well as the men-at-arms and archers. The Duke of Lancaster, and the Earls of Northampton, Arundel, March and Stafford, pledged their loyal support and counsel.

Prince Edward probably had his headquarters at Plympton, Devon, from 8 August 1355 until 2 September, On 4 September he was at Plymouth, Devon. On 7 September, there is a warrant for vestments for the priests of his chapels at Wallingford and Berkhamstead, gifts of musical instruments to the minstrels sent to him by the Count of Eu, and "a round plate, gilt and enameled with the arms of the company of the Garter, which we gave to William de Stafford, Herald of Arms, and of three garters, the one of gold, the other enameled with an eagle and the third, a common silver garter, enameled and gilt, which we have received for our own use."

On Monday, 5th of October 1355, Prince Edward marched to encounter the French forces in Languedoc. Prince Edward has been accused of ruthlessness during the campaign, but this was in fact normal and carried out by both sides at the time. This consisted of burning and plundering enemy territories to deny them of the resources. The Vanguard of the column was under the Earl of Warwick and Cobham, Prince Edward was in the Middle guard with Oxford, the Captal de Buch, and the rearguard under Salisbury and Suffolk. They retook Arouille and captured Monclar. During the night at Monclar the Prince had to escape from the building he was in after one of the local's set light to it. On the 17 October 1355 the Captal de Buch captured the fortress of Plaisance. Crossing the Garonne around the 26 October 1355, they then went on to capture Montigscard, Villefranche, Avignonet and Castelnaudary. After 8 weeks avoiding the French armies and prolonged sieges, Prince Edward's army returned to Bordeaux on 9 December 1355. They had raided around 250 miles from Bordeaux to Nabronne. The forces spent the winter around Bordeaux and started the Chevauchée in the first week of January 1356. On the 4 August 1356 Prince Edward campaigned North East with 6-7,000 men burning and destroying as they went through Brantôme, Rochechouart, Châteauxroux, and captured the Citadel of Romorantin. They then headed west to Tours where they turned south to return to Bordeaux, and on the 13 September 1356 were at La Haye, pursued by the army of the French King Jean who was 20 miles away. The two forces then maneuvered around each other with Jean marching further to the South East but finally meeting the English on the 19 September 1356. Edward placed his Vanguard under the command of the Earls of Warwick and Salisbury, and his rearguard under under Suffolk. Cardinal Elie Talleyrand of Périgord persuaded king Jean to allow a parley, which Prince Edward's men used to dig ditches, and reinforce hedges and barricades. Prince Edward had ordered the baggage train under the Earl of Warwick to move off at first light the next day, and this triggered an undisciplined charge by the French and so started the battle. The French advanced and the returning Warwick caught a French flank with his archers that caused the French to retreat. The main body of the French advanced with the Oriflame, and the Prince ordered Jean de Grailly to lead a mounted charge into the rear of the French. The English won the Battle of Poitiers, despite being outnumbered by the forces of France, and was mainly due to the military skill of Prince Edward. After the battle King Jean was served upon by Prince Edward and later taken to Bordeaux. On 11 April 1357 Prince Edward with King Jean left France and arrived in London, on 24 May 1357.

By an instrument, dated London, 6th September 1357, Prince Edward appointed Henry, Lord Percy and Ralph, Lord Neville to swear on his behalf to the observance of the treaty to be concluded between the King, his father, and his council and the prelates, nobles and others of the Kingdom of Scotland, concerning the liberation of "David de Bruys, a prisoner of our Lord the King." In May 1359 he took part in the jousts at Windsor, and in October 1359 he accompanied Edward III to France. Prince Edward commanded the second battle moving through France and on 4 December 1359 was at Villedomange near Rheims. Prince Edward captured the castle at Cormicy after his men climbed the walls and undermined the keep. At Ligny-le-Châtel guerilla bands attacked Prince Edward's battle. At Auxerre 5 lightly armed esquires with 3 archers defeated 50 French men-at-arms, taking 5 prisoners, and became known as the battle of 50 against 5. The army marched west and then North West to Paris. Richard Barber describes that at Tournelles, near to Fontainbleu, Prince Edward captured a fortified manor after a 4-5 day siege, and took prisoner 5 knights. Barbara Emerson descibes the chateau of Villemarachel that had been held by an English free company for a few years and was under siege by a French free company, and Prince Edward attacked the besiegers. Prince Edward's troops raided Vanves, Montrouge and Gentilly, being as close as 3.5 miles from the city centre. On 12 April 1360 Edward III and Duke Henry of Lancaster withdrew, under the cover of a diversion by Prince Edward, who then waited to ambush those who came out of Paris. Prince Edward signed the treaty of Brétigny on behalf of Edward III on 11 May 1360, and then returned to London. On 30 June 1360 Prince Edward escorted King Jean to Dover where they arrived on 6 July 1360. Prince Edward was present for the signing of the peace treaty of Calais and returned to Dover on 31 October 1360, where he then spent a week at Canterbury, praying at the shrine of St Thomas in the Trinity Chapel. In February 1361 Prince Edward was at Westminster when each member of Parliament took an oath to preserve the peace with France. In April 1361 Prince Edward traveled to Leicester to place 2 cloths of gold on the bier of Henry Duke of Lancaster.

On 19 July 1362, Prince Edward, was created Prince of Guienne and Gascony, and made those provinces into a principality for the term of his life. On 13 November 1362 Prince Edward celebrated his father's 50th birthday and in June 1363 arrived in Gascony. Edward went straight to his new territories, accompanied by his princess, holding his court with great state and magnificence at Poitiers, to which city the barons and knights of Poitou and Saintonge repaired, to do him fealty and homage, and where he was also visited by Peter de Lusignan, King of Cyprus. In June 1364 Edward spent 8 days at the town of Cahors. On the latter occasion, the Prince gave a Royal joust of forty knights and as many esquires in honour of the birth of his son, Edward.

In 1365 Bertrand Du Guesclin led an army that was to fight the Moors of Granada, and asked Prince Edward for permission to pass through English territories and for English Captains to take part. Prince Edward agreed, however he did not realise that this Crusade was really directed against Pedro the Cruel and to support his half brother Enrique Trasatmara to take the throne of Castille. Edward III recalled the English Captains, but was too late. John Chandos was sent into Spain to have them return. During the residence of Prince Edward at Bordeaux, his aid was personally requested by Peter or Pedro "the Cruel," King of Castile, towards the recovery of his kingdom, from which he had been driven by his illegitimate brother, Henry or Enrique of Transtamare. Prince Edward sent a messenger that reached Pedro in Galicia which still remained loyal to him. On the 23 September1366 Don Pedro I and Prince Edward signed the Treaty of Libourne whereby Prince Edward would aid the recovery of the throne of Castille in exchange for 500,000 florins and the fief of Biscay. Charles of Navarre would allow free passage through the pass of Roncevaux and Navarre in exchange for the province of Guipuzoa and the cities of Vitoria, Logroño, Calahorra and Alfaro. Prince Edward started across the Alps on 15 February 1367 and took 3 days to crossing through the pass of Roncevaux and entered Spain at the head of 30,000 men. On the 20 February 1367 Prince Edward's army was at Pamplona. Enrique de Trastamara sent 600 horsemen to recapture Agreda but they instead defected to Pedro. During a skirmish at Álava Sir William Felton was killed and Ralph Hastings and Richard Taunton and others were taken prisoner. It was said that Prince Edward was 'sore grieved' at the loss of William Felton. In the Spanish mountains, there was little food and Prince Edward's men greatly suffered from lack of food. After the battle of Najera (about fifty miles south of Bilboa) on 3 April 1367, Prince Edward restored the Pedro to his throne. Prince Edward captured many noblemen at the batlle including the French hero Bertrand Du Guesclin, who taunted Prince Edward that he dare not ransom him, Prince Edward replied that he should name his own ransom, so Bertrand gave a figure of 100,000 Francs and that 'there was not a spinning girl in all of France who would not spin at least one distaff for his ransom'. However Enrique de Trastamara had escaped the battle by changing horses.Prince Edward on hearing that Enrique had escaped was reported to have said "Non ay res fait", nothing is gained. Enriques captured warhorse was sent to Edward III as a present from Prince Edward. Enrique escaped to France and took over the old Cathar stronghold of Peyrepertuse in the eastern Pyrénées and from there led raids on the border towns held by the English of Aquitaine, and in Bigorre he captured the town of Bagnères.

On 2 May 1367 Pedro renewed his promises and left for Saville to gather gold and silver to pay Prince Edward and his men, promising to meet after 1 week near Valadolid with payment. The cost of the campaign had reached 2.5 million florins, an was 5 times higher than the estmated cost. After 24 June 1367 Prince Edward sent 3 knights to talk with Pedro who claimed that he could not raise the required money with the free companies ravaging his lands. Prince Edward was advised against freeing Bertrand Du Guesclin as it could be used by Pedro as an excuse not to pay. By November 1367 Prince Edward was meeting the envoys of Aragon and Navarre in Gascony to find ways to make Pedro pay, one option was the splitting up of Castille amongst its neighbours. On 27 December1367 Bertrand Du Guesclin gave Prince Edward a promisory note for payment with the guaranteeors being the king of France, Jeanne de Penthièvre Dowager Duche of Brittany and the Lady of Laval. The Count of Denia, nephew to the king of Aragon who was captured at Najera, was ransomed for 150,000 gold doubles, the currency of Castille. It soon became obvious that Pedro was not going to pay Prince Edward back for the cost of the expedition. In 1367 Prince Edward granted privileges to the University of Cahors.

Prince Edward became demoralized through financial difficulties as a result of the expedition to defend the throne of Don Pedro of Spain, and a debilitating sickness which he contracted in the Spanish campaign in 1367, and the loss of French lands together and the death of Edward, his oldest and favorite son. Prince Edward's exhibited arrogance and extravagance. It was said that Prince Edward kept waiting several great lords of Aquitaine for 4-5 days and had them remain kneling for 1/4 of an hour. Daily he fed at his table up to 400 people and Prince Edward insisted on being served by a knight who wore golden spurs. A traditional French tax was used the Hearth Tax, or the fouage to pay for Prince Edward's Spanish war, caused many of the Gascons to turn towards France. The count of Armagnac refused to let agents of the Prince of Wales collect the fouage in his lands. In September 1368 Radez turned to support the French. In January 1369 French forces captured Rouergue and Quercy, and Cahors turned to the French. The French seized fortesses along the valleys of the Lot and Aveyron. More than 900 towns and castles turned to join the French, often through negotiation, such as for 10 years of no taxes, Millau negotiated 20 years of no taxes.

On 14 March 1369 at the Battle of Montiel Enrique Trastamara defeated the army of Pedro the Cruel, who fled into the castle of Montiel. On 23 March 1369 Pedro was tricked into coming out of Montiel by paying passage but Betrand instea double crossed him and handed him over to Enrique Trastamara who killed his half brother Pedro the Cruel with a dagger. Enriques men killed an English squire named Jakes Rolans and an English knight called Raoul Helme who was known as the Green Knight.

On 29 April 1369 Abbeville and Rue surrendered to the French and by mid May 1369 all Ponthieu was French. In May 1369 Charles V, king of France summoned Prince Edward to Paris, Prince Edward's reply was that he would come but "I assure you that it will be with helmet on our head and 60,000 men in our company". Charles V declared Prince Edward a disloyal vassal, being Duke of Aquitaine, and declared that the Treaty of Brétigny was void and war was declared. In response on 3 June 1369 Edward Resumed his title as King of France. In May 1369 Montbauban turned to the French. In Spain during June to July 1369 Enrique Trastamara beat back an invasion of Galacia by the Portugese.

In August 1370 Limoges was taken by Duc de Berry for the French, who persuaded the Bishop to hand over the town in exchange for 10 years exemption from taxes. In July 1370 Louis d'Anjou captured the town of Moissac and Bertrand du Guesclin captured Brantôme, Saint-Yrieix and Abbey of Périgueux. Prince Edward now greatly suffering from his illness then besieged Limoges from his litter, and on taking it on 19 September 1370 had all except those they could ransom executed as an example for resisting him. Froissarts figures may be a little suspect for the number killed as they exceed the entire population of the town. The city except for the Cathedral was burnt and pulled down. By January 1372 the French had retaken Limoges. By September 1370 Robert Knowles chevauchée was burning Arcueil, Cachan, villejuif and others near Paris. Bertrand Du Guesclin and Olivier III de Clisson departed Caen on 1 December 1370 and made a surprise attack on the Mercenary company of obert Knolles forces, led by Sir Thomas Grandison at Pontvallain, south of Le Mans on 4th December 1370. Sir Thomas Granson and 80 other valuable prisoners were sent to the king of France on 1 January 1371.

Prince Edward set sail for home with Joan and Richard, his second son by her, they arrived in Plymouth in January 1371.

In August 1372 Edward III and Prince Edward formed a fleet but were held back by contary winds that held them back for 9 weeks, causing them to abandon their plans, as it was now too late in the year.

Prince Edward left control of the continent to his brothers, the Duke of Lancaster and Earl of Cambridge, and in 1373 he surrendered the principality of Guienne into the King's hands. Prince Edward was inflicted by a contagious dysentry that gave way to dropsy and he grew heavier and weaker until bedridden. He may also have been suffering from cirrhosis, or syphilis, and lingered for a few years with periods of rage and ill temper. In 1376 Prince Edward was carried to Parliament in order to gain support and acceptance for his son, Richard, to be the next king. During the impachment of the good Parliament of 1376 Richard Lyons tried to bribe Prince Edward by sending him a barrel of Sturgeon with £1000 hidden inside but Prince Edward returned it. Richard Lyons then also tried to bribe Edward III who kept the money stating that he was only taking back that which was his own.

Prince Edward made his final will, in the King's Great Chamber at Westminster, on 7 June 1376 and dying the following day age 46. He was followed a year later by the death of his father Edward III. Prince Edward's body, was embalmed and lay in state in Westminster Hall for nearly four months until the meeting of Parliament at the ensuing Michaelmas, so that it might be buried with the greater solemnity. Prince Edward was laid to rest at Canterbury, near the shrine of St. Thomas A'Becket. His crested helmet, shield and buckler and tomb are still present to this today at Canterbury. Charles V held a requiem mass for Prince Edward in the Sainte Chapelle. Prince Edward's tomb was inscribed in French with;

"Such as thou art, so once was I
As I am now, so shalt thou be"

The unknown author of Chronique des quatre premiers Valois, acknowledged him 'one of the greatest knights on earth, having reknown above all men'. Froissart described him as 'The flower of Chivalry of all the world'. In 1397 Wilton Diptych painted a series of miniature images painted on the side of the Black Prince's tomb in Canterbury Cathedral.

In 1334-1335 Prince Edward made Nicholas Upton, the parker of Shotwick Park, Cheshire, a job of dignity with valuable perquisites, and it was eagerly sought after and paid 2d a day. The next parker in 1335 Richard Roer, was one of the King’s archers, who received the same wages but also a grant of land in Little Saughall. In 1353, the Black Prince made his first visit to his earldom of Chester and gave 12 oaks from Saughall Wood and a further 12 oaks later to the monks of Chester as part compensation for stopping their hunting rights in the royal forests. The Black Prince seems to have extorted much money from his earldom, one sum of £3000 the county paid to gain exemption from a general Eyre or visitation which would have cost more. To another levy of the Prince amounting to £1000, the Abbot of Chester had to pay £266. The people of Chester fervently hoped that this, the Prince’s first visit would be his last.

Last Will and Testament

We, Edward, eldest son of the King of England and France, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, and Earl of Chester, the 7th June, 1376, in our apartment in the Palace of our Lord and Father the King at Westminster, being of good and sound memory, &c. We bequeath to the altar of Our Lady's chapel at Canterbury two basons with our arms, and a large gilt chalice enamelled with the arms of Warren. To our son Richard the bed which the King our father gave us. To Sir Roger de Clarendon a silk bed. To Sir Robert de Walsham, our Confessor, a large bed of red camora, with our arms embroidered at each corner; also embroidered with the arms of Hereford. To Mons. Alayne Cheyne our bed of camora powdered with blue eagles. And we bequeath all our goods and chattels, jewels, &c. for the payment of our funeral and debts; after which we will that our executors pay certain legacies to our poor servants. All annuities which we have given to our Knights, Esquires, and other [of] our followers, in reward for their services, we desire to be fully paid. And we charge our son Richard, on our blessing, that he fulfil our bequests to them. And we appoint our very dear and beloved brother of Spain, Duke of Lancaster; the Reverend Fathers in God William Bishop of Winchester; John Bishop of Bath; William Bishop of St. Asaph;our Confessor, Sir Robert de Walsham; Hugh de Segrave, Steward of our Lands; Aleyn Stokes; and John Fordham, our executors. In testimony of which we have put to this our last will our privy seal, &c. Proved 4 June, 1376.


Arthur Charles Fox-Davies, The Art of Heraldry, 1904, 1986 edition, pg 331

Arthur Charles Fox-Davies, The Art of Heraldry, 1904, 1986 edition, pg 334

Stephen Friar, Heraldry for the Local Historian and Genealogist, 1997, pg 221


Black Prince, the origin of the name from Wikisource

It is commonly said that the prince received the name of the Black Prince after the battle of Crécy, and that he was so called because he wore black armour at the battle. The first recorded notices of the appellation seem to be given by Leland (Collectanea, ed, Hearne, 1774, ii. 307) in a heading to the 'Itinerary' extracted from 'Eulogium.' The 'Black Prince,' however, is not in the 'Eulogium' of the Rolls Series, except in the editor's marginal notes. Leland (ib, pp. 471-99) repeats the appellation in quotations 'owte of a booke ot chroniques in Peter College Library.' This 'booke' is a transcript from a copy of Caxton's 'Chronile,' with the continuation by Br. John Warkworth, master of the college, 1473-98 (edited by Halliwell for the Camden Society, and also printed in  modernised text in 'Chron. of the White Rose' pp. 101 sq.) The manuscript has Warkworth's autograph, 'monitum,' but on examination is found not to contain the words 'Black Prince.' Other early writers who give Edward his well-known title are: Grafton (1563), who writes (Chronicle,p. 324, printed 1569), 'Edward, prince of Wales, who was called the blacke prince;' Holinshed (iii. 348, b, 20); Shakespeare, 'Henry V,' II. iv. 56; and in Speed. Barnes, 'History of Edward III' (1688), p. 363, says: 'From this time the French began to call him Le Neoir or the Black Prince,' and gives a reference which implies that the appellation is found in a record of 2 Richard II, but his reference does not appear sufficiently clear to admit of verification. The name does not occur in the 'Eulogium,' the 'Chronicle' of Geoffrey le Baker, the 'Chronicon Angliæ,' the 'Polychronicon' of Higden or of Trevisa, or in Caxton's 'Chronile' (1482), nor is it used by Jehan le Bel or Froissart. Jehan de Wavrin (d.l474?), who expounds a prophecy of Merlin as applying to the prince, says that he was called 'Pie-de-Plomb' (Croniques d'Engleterre t. i. l . ii. c. 56, Rolls ed. i. 236. Louandre (Hist. d'Abbeville, p. 230) asserts that before the battle Edward arrayed his son in black armour, and it seems that the prince used black in his heraldic devices (Nichols, Royal Wills, p. 66). It is evident from the notices of the sixteenth-century historians that when they wrote the name was traditional (the subject is discussed in Dr. Murray's 'New English Dictionary,' art. 'Black Prince,' pt. iii. col. ii. p. 895; compare the 'Antiquary,' vol. xvii. No. 100, p. 183).


Ostrich Feathers, the use of, from Wikisource

As regards the story that the prince took the crest of three ostrich feathers and the motto 'Ich dien' from the king of Bohemia, who was slain in the battle of Crécy, it may be noted, first, as to the ostrich feathers, that in the manuscript of John of Arderne's [q.v] 'Medica,' written by William Seton (Sloane MS. 56, f. 74, 14th cent.), is an ostrich feather used as a mark of reference to a previous page, on which the same device occurs, 'ubi depingitur penna principis Walliæ,' with the remark: 'Et nota quod talem pennam albam portabat Edwardus, primogenitus E. regis Angliæ, super cristam suam, et illam pennam conquisivit de Rege Boemiæ, quem interfecit apud Cresy in francia' (see also J. de Arderne, 'Miscellanea medica et chirurgica,' in Sloane MS, 335, f. 68, 14th cent.; but not, as asserted in Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xi. 293, in Arderne's 'Practice,' Sloane MS, 76, f. 61, written in English 15th cent.) Although the reference and remark in Sloane MS. 56 may be by Seton and not by Arderne, the prince's physician, it is evident that probably before the prince's death the ostrich feather was recognised as his peculiar badge, assumed after the battle of Crécy. While the crest of John of Bohemia was the entire wings of a vulture 'besprinkled with linden leaves of gold' (poem in Baron Reiffenburg's Barante, Ducs de Bourgogne; Olivier de Vrée, Généalogie des Comtes de Flandre, pp. 65-7), the ostrich seems to have been the badge of his house; it was borne by Queen Anne of Bohemia, as well as by her brother Wenzel, and is on her effigy on her tomb (Archæologia, xxix, 32-59). The feather badge occurs as two feathers on four seals of the prince (ib, xxxi. 361), and as three feathers on the alternate escutcheons placed on his tomb in accordance with the directions of his will The prince in his will says that the feathers were 'for peace,' i.e. for jousts and tournaments, and calls them his badge, not his crest. Although the ostrich feather was his special badge, it was placed on some plate belonging to his mother, was used in the form of one or more feathers by various members of the royal house, and, by grant of Richard II, by Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk (ib, 354-79). The story of the prince's winning the feathers was printed, probably for the first time, by Camden in his 'Remaines.' In his first edition (1605) he states that it was 'at the battle of Poictiers,' p. 161, but corrects this in his next edition (1614), p. 214. Secondly, as to the motto, it appears that the prince used two mottoes, 'Houmout' and 'Ich dien,' which are both appended as signature to a letter under his privy seal (Archæologia, xxxi. 381). In his will he directed that 'Houmout' should be written on each of the escutcheons round his tomb. But it actually occurs only over the escutcheons bearing his arms, while over the alternate escutcheons with his badge, and also on the escroll upon the quill of each feather, are the words 'ich diene' (sic). 'Houmout' is interpreted as meaning high mood or courage (ib. xxxii. 69). No early tradition connects 'Ich dien' with John of Bohemia. Like 'Houmout,' it is probably old Flemish or Low German. Camden in his 'Remaines' (in the passage cited above) says that it is old English, 'Ic dien,' that is 'I serve,' and that the prince 'adjoyned' the motto to the feathers, and he connects it, no doubt rightly, with the prince's position as heir, referring to Ep. to Galatians, iv. l.



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